A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology Ophthalmic Technology Assessment Committee Glaucoma Panel: David K. Dueker, MD; Kuldev Singh, MD, MPH; Shan C. Lin, MD; Robert D. Fechtner, MD, FACS; Don S. Minckler, MD; John R. Samples, MD; Joel S. Schuman, MD
Ophthalmology, September 2007 © 2007 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology
Reviewed for currency: 2014
Objective: To evalute published literature to assess whether central corneal thickness (CCT) is a risk factor for the presence, development, or progression of glaucomatous optic nerve damage related to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
Methods: A PubMed literature search limited to English language articles conducted on November 15, 2004 retrieved 195 articles. The authors reviewed these abstracts and selected 57 to review in full text to determine relevance to the assessment questions. A further 24 studies of interest were identified from periodic updates to the literature search, surveillance of the literature, and reference lists of reviewed articles. From the 81 published reports identified, the first author applied specified selection criteria that yielded 37 articles for methodological review because of relevance to the assessment questions. The articles were rated according to the strength of evidence by the panel methodologist. A level I rating was assigned to well-designed, properly conducted randomized clinical trials or similar quality-validated cohort studies with appropriate reference standards. A level II rating was assigned to well-designed case-control studies, exploratory cohort studies, and other nonrandomized clinical studies lacking consistently applied reference standards. A level III rating was reserved for poorly designed case-control studies, case series, and papers consisting only of expert opinion without supporting evidence. In addition, each study was graded as positive if it supported a statistical association of CCT with the risk of having or developing glaucomatous optic nerve damage or as negative if no such association was found.
Results: There is strong and consistent level I and level II evidence that CCT is a risk factor for progression from ocular hypertension to POAG. Studies that were rated as providing the highest quality of evidence revealed mixed results with respect to glaucoma prevalence. One population-based study (level II) showed a positive association, another larger study (level I) revealed an association of marginal significance, and 3 studies (all level I) found no association of CCT with POAG prevalence.
Conclusions: There is strong evidence that measuring CCT is an important component of a complete ocular examination, particularly for patients being evaluated for the risk of developing POAG. Therefore, CCT measurement should be included in the examination of all patients with ocular hypertension. Although the evidence supporting the necessity of measuring CCT as part of screening for POAG or as a risk factor for glaucoma progression is not as strong, intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor in the treatment of glaucoma, and CCT has the potential to significantly impact IOP measurement by applanation tonometry in all patients.