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    By Jonathan M. Holmes, MD
    Subspecialty Day 2012: Pediatric Ophthalmology
    Pediatric Ophth/Strabismus

    Dr. Jonathan M. Holmes reviews new, developing and possible future surgical techniques for strabismus surgery. New techniques include intraoperative assessment of torsion and intraoperative assessment of oblique muscle tension with a superior oblique or inferior oblique traction test. Electrical stimulation of extraocular muscles and pharmacological manipulation with botulinum toxin, bupivacaine or IGF-1 are surgical techniques in development for strabismus.