•   
    Refractive Subspecialty Day 2016
    Refractive Mgmt/Intervention

    1. The Basic Toric IOL Calculation
      1. What's needed?
        1. Verifying regular, symmetric astigmatism
        2. Correctly identifying the steep meridian
        3. Determining the power difference between principal meridians
        4. Including surgically induced astigmatism
    2. Recent Advances and Additions
      1. Variable effective lens position
      2. Adding the posterior cornea as a third vector
      3. Calculating spherical equivalent
      4. Reconsidering the concept of surgically induced astigmatism: mean vs. median vs. centroid
    3. Features of Popular Toric Calculators Currently Used in North America
      1. Alcon
      2. AMO
      3. B+L
      4. Holladay
      5. Barrett
    4. Recommendations