Other Forms of Incomitant Esotropia
Medial rectus muscle restriction may result from thyroid eye disease, orbital myositis, medial orbital wall fracture with medial rectus entrapment, excessive medial rectus muscle resection, or congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Duane retraction syndrome and Möbius syndrome begin as paralytic disorders, and secondary restriction of the medial rectus may develop later. In patients with high myopia, esotropia may develop because of prolapse of the posterior globe between displaced lateral and superior rectus muscles.
For further discussion of these special forms of strabismus, see Chapter 12 in this volume and BCSC Section 5, Neuro-Ophthalmology.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.