New and Future Vaccines
New vaccines are now available for typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi), anthrax, and rabies. Vaccines undergoing investigation include those for HIV, dysentery (Shigella), Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, respiratory syncytial virus, Ebola virus, Zika virus, malaria, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex type 2, Epstein-Barr virus, TB, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus, Propionibacterium acnes (now Cutibacterium), para-influenza virus, and leishmaniasis. Some vaccines, such as those for smallpox and plague (Yersinia), are in development largely in anticipation of a future bioterrorism attack using these disease vectors.
Passive immunization with human hyperimmunoglobulin is currently available to treat or prevent rabies, tetanus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, herpesvirus, and varicella-zoster infections. Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin is no longer available, but new monoclonal antibodies show promise.
Considering the worldwide impact of infectious diseases, there is great interest in developing new vaccines for the treatment of gonorrhea, syphilis, leprosy, trachoma, and other infectious diseases. It is hoped that ongoing research will lead to the development of safe and effective vaccines for many or all of these illnesses.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website; www.cdc.gov.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control website; www.ecdc.europa.eu. Kanoi BN, Egwang TG. New concepts in vaccine development in malaria. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2007;20(3):311–316.
World Health Organization website; www.who.int/topics/vaccines/en.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 1 - Update on General Medicine. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.