The terminology used for types of diabetes mellitus has evolved over the years. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) classifies diabetes mellitus as type 1 diabetes mellitus, formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), and type 2 diabetes mellitus, formerly known as non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, which usually leads to absolute insulin deficiency. This process can be either idiopathic or immune-mediated. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance that may or may not be accompanied by insulin deficiency. The ADA also recognizes other forms of diabetes mellitus, including a genetically mediated form secondary to endocrinopathy and drug- or chemical-induced diabetes mellitus.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.