2020–2021 BCSC Basic and Clinical Science Course™
12 Retina and Vitreous
Part II: Disorders of the Retina and Vitreous
Chapter 05: Retinal Vascular Disease: Diabetic Retinopathy
This chapter includes a related activity, which can be accessed by scanning the QR code provided in the text or going to www.aao.org/bcscactivity_section12.
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision loss worldwide among patients aged 25–74 years, especially in developed countries such as the United States. This chapter provides a foundation for the evaluation and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
Terminology and Classification
The terminology used for types of diabetes mellitus has evolved over the years. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) classifies diabetes mellitus as type 1 diabetes mellitus, formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), and type 2 diabetes mellitus, formerly known as non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Type 1 diabetes mellitus results from the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, which usually leads to absolute insulin deficiency. This process can be either idiopathic or immune-mediated. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance that may or may not be accompanied by insulin deficiency. The ADA also recognizes other forms of diabetes mellitus, including a genetically mediated form secondary to endocrinopathy and drug- or chemical-induced diabetes mellitus.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.