DM is diagnosed by means of tests that evaluate glucose tolerance. A definitive diagnosis is made when at least 1 of the 4 following criteria is met and confirmed with repeat testing:
Persons with prediabetes have an increased risk for developing diabetes mellitus. The following abnormal test results suggest prediabetes:
Progression from impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 DM occurs at a rate of about 12% per year.
Metabolic syndrome is a serious health condition that affects about 23% of adults in the United States, putting them at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, stroke, and diseases related to the buildup of fatty plaques in artery walls. The underlying causes of metabolic syndrome include overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, genetic factors, and aging.
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of 3 or more of the following:
FPG ≥100 mg/dL
abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm in men and >89 cm in women)
triglyceride level ≥150 mg/dL or greater
HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dL in men or <50 mg/dL in women
systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg
Individuals can decrease their risk of metabolic syndrome significantly by reducing their weight; increasing physical activity; eating a heart-healthy diet that is rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and fish; and working with a health care provider or dietitian to monitor and manage blood glucose, blood cholesterol, and blood pressure.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 1 - Update on General Medicine. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.