The fundus examination is typically the final component of a complete pediatric ophthalmology examination. Though often challenging to obtain in young children, an adequate view of the fundus is important for identifying pathology. After mydriasis is achieved, infants and small children can be examined with the indirect ophthalmoscope, often more easily by using decreased illumination. Examination may require restraint of some infants, particularly those being screened for retinopathy of prematurity (in these cases, a topical anesthetic, eyelid speculum, and scleral depression are necessary for a complete retinal evaluation). For many young children, the practitioner can obtain sufficient views by using diversionary targets such as illuminated toys and cartoons.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.