Although a comprehensive discussion of cerebrovascular disorders is beyond the scope of this text, the following sections give an overview of common conditions that cause neuro-ophthalmic signs and symptoms.
Transient Visual Loss
Transient neurologic or ophthalmic symptoms in middle-aged or elderly patients suggest a vascular origin. Localization of the symptoms and signs determines whether they result from ischemia in the vertebrobasilar or the carotid artery territory. Although recurrent cerebrovascular ischemia is a concern, the major cause of death in these patients is coronary artery disease. Thus, efforts should be made to control risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemias, accompanied by cessation of smoking. Diagnostic and therapeutic efforts are directed at the cerebrovascular circulation. Carotid system disorders whose main symptom is transient visual loss are discussed in Chapter 5.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 5 - Neuro-Ophthalmology. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.