Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) causes a microangiopathy known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) retinopathy.
Opportunistic infections—such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, Pneumocystis jirovecii choroiditis, and Cryptococcus neoformans choroiditis—have become less common since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Immune recovery uveitis is intraocular sterile inflammation that occurs following CMV retinitis as the T-cell count improves with successful HIV therapy.
Malignancies such as vitreoretinal lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma are associated with AIDS.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is caused by HIV, which infects and results in the depletion of CD4+ helper T lymphocytes. This loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes causes profound immune deficiency with subsequent opportunistic infections. Refer to BCSC Section 1, Update on General Medicine, for a full discussion of HIV infection and AIDS.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 9 - Uveitis and Ocular Inflammation. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.