2020–2021 BCSC Basic and Clinical Science Course™
1 Update on General Medicine
Chapter 9: Rheumatic Disorders
Effective biologic agents are continually being developed for the treatment of rheumatologic diseases. These agents target cytokines through various mechanisms: inhibiting tumor necrosis factor (TNF), blocking interleukin receptors, modifying T-cell or B-cell activity, or inhibiting the Janus kinase enzyme involved in mediating inflammation.
Anti–TNF-α agents can be associated with significant adverse effects in rare instances, such as lymphoma or opportunistic infections, and may be linked to demyelinating disease, including optic neuritis.
Actual body weight is more predictive than ideal body weight in assessing risk of maculopathy from the use of hydroxychloroquine.
Undiagnosed spondyloarthritis may present with anterior uveitis.
Children with the common forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis should be periodically screened for uveitis, which is often asymptomatic.
Clinicians should consider antiphospholipid syndrome when atypical ocular vaso-occlusive disease occurs in a patient younger than age 50.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 1 - Update on General Medicine. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.