Esodeviations occur with equal frequency in males and females and are more common in African Americans and white ethnic groups than in Asian ethnic groups in the United States. Risk factors for the development of esotropia include anisometropia, hyperopia, neurodevelopmental impairment, prematurity, low birth weight, craniofacial or chromosomal abnormalities, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and family history of strabismus. The prevalence of esotropia increases with age (higher prevalence at 48–72 months compared with 6–11 months), moderate anisometropia, and moderate hyperopia. In some families, a mendelian inheritance pattern has been observed. Amblyopia develops in approximately 50% of children who have esotropia.
Esodeviations can result from innervational, anatomical, mechanical, refractive, or accommodative factors. There are several major types of esodeviations, and they can be classified as comitant or incomitant (Table 8-1).
Cotter SA, Varma R, Tarczy-Hornoch K, et al; Joint Writing Committee for the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study and the Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study Groups. Risk factors associated with childhood strabismus. Ophthalmology. 2011; 118(11):2251–2261.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.