Terson syndrome is recognized as a vitreous and sub-ILM or subhyaloid hemorrhage caused by an abrupt intracranial hemorrhage. Although the exact mechanism is not known, it is suspected that the acute intracranial hemorrhage causes an acute rise in the intraocular venous pressure, resulting in a rupture of peripapillary and retinal vessels. Approximately one-third of patients with subarachnoid or subdural hemorrhage have associated intraocular hemorrhage, which may include intraretinal and subretinal bleeding. Terson syndrome occurs primarily in individuals between 30 and 50 years old, but it can occur at any age. In most cases, visual function is unaffected once the hemorrhage clears. Spontaneous improvement generally occurs, although vitrectomy is occasionally required to clear the ocular media.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.