The process of clinical refraction represents one of the practical applications of geometric optics. Refraction is a critical component in an ophthalmic examination. It allows the determination of the best corrected vision of the eye. This determination is often necessary in determining the diagnosis and recommended treatment course. The refraction is necessary in determining visual correction with spectacles, contact lenses, lens implants, and refractive corneal surgery. Other techniques, such as the pinhole, corneal topography and tomography, and various forms of autorefraction are valuable but, as yet, have not replaced manifest refraction in the ophthalmic examination.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series : Section 3 - Clinical Optics. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.