Untreated obstructive sleep apnea is associated with coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, refractory hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is also strongly associated with various ocular conditions.
Smoking cessation is the single most efficacious and cost-effective intervention in reducing the risk of COPD, heart disease, and stroke. Ophthalmologists should obtain a smoking history from their patients and encourage smoking cessation.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 1 - Update on General Medicine. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.