Scleral staphylomas are scleral ectasias that are lined internally by uveal tissue. Staphylomas may develop at points of weakness in the scleral shell, either in inherently thin areas (such as posterior to the rectus muscle insertions; Fig 8-9) or in areas weakened by tissue destruction (as in scleritis; see Fig 8-7). In children, staphylomas may occur as a result of long-standing elevated intraocular pressure or axial myopia, owing to the relative distensibility of the sclera in young eyes. Thus, location and age at onset vary according to the underlying etiology. Histologic examination invariably reveals thinned sclera, with or without fibrosis and scarring, depending on the cause.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 4 - Ophthalmic Pathology and Intraocular Tumors. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.