Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent and is closely associated with condylomata (genital warts), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer (>99% of all cervical cancers are positive for HPV), conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, and some cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. HPV has a possible etiologic role in some cases of lung adenocarcinoma as well. More than 50% of all persons are infected with HPV during their lifetimes, via either intrauterine or sexually transmitted infection. HPV can be detected with PCR assay techniques, and women at high risk for HPV should receive HPV testing at the time of the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. Please see Chapter 12 for further discussion of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 1 - Update on General Medicine. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.