Organizational Framework and Basic Pathologic Concepts
As stated previously, Chapters 5 through 15 focus on specific ocular structures and disease processes. In these chapters, the text is organized from general to specific, with the following topics as the framework for the discussion:
Thus, the text also provides an organizational paradigm for the study of ophthalmic pathology (Table 1-1).
Table 1-1 Organizational Paradigm for Ophthalmic Pathology
Topography refers to the description of the anatomical location and structural features of a particular tissue. Topographic identification is the first step in analysis of a pathologic specimen. Recognizing normal tissue in a specimen helps to define abnormal areas and narrow the differential diagnosis. This requires knowledge of the general landscape of normal ocular structures. For example, collagenous tissue lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with dermal appendages is typical of eyelid skin, whereas organized layers, including nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, Bowman layer, collagenous stroma, Descemet membrane, and endothelium, are typical of the cornea. Using the topographic features of the specimen, an examiner can then orient and identify the tissue in question. Recognition of characteristic features, such as the presence or absence of an epithelium, can be particularly helpful. See BCSC Section 2, Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology, for a review of ophthalmic anatomy.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 4 - Ophthalmic Pathology and Intraocular Tumors. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.