In the acute phase of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis, early intervention in severe cases with an amniotic membrane transplant of the entire ocular surface, including the eyelid margins, is very helpful.
Signs of mucous membrane pemphigoid include trichiasis and subepithelial conjunctival fibrosis, indicated by the presence of gray-white linear scarring of the forniceal conjunctiva. Conjunctival biopsy may be helpful to confirm the diagnosis.
Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of Cogan syndrome and timely systemic treatment may prevent irreversible hearing loss and death.
Patients with necrotizing keratitis, scleritis, and/or peripheral ulcerative keratitis have a significant risk of underlying collagen vascular disease; thus, systemic evaluation and workup are important.
See BCSC Section 9, Uveitis and Ocular Inflammation, for discussion of the principles of immunology.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.