Episclera and Sclera
Dilation of the episcleral vessels may indicate elevated episcleral venous pressure, which can be idiopathic or can occur in the secondary glaucomas associated with disease processes (see the previous section Ocular Adnexa and Chapter 8). Sentinel vessels may be seen in eyes harboring an intraocular tumor. The clinician should note any thinning or staphylomatous areas. Slate-gray patches of scleral pigmentation are present in oculodermal melanocytosis, and affected patients are at increased risk for developing glaucoma and ocular melanoma. Scleritis may also be associated with elevated IOP.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.