The most common condition to masquerade as uveitis is primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL), although a number of other neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions can also masquerade as uveitis.
Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma can present with vitritis, anterior uveitis, subretinal and/or intraretinal infiltrates. Definitive diagnosis is made by cytology of intraocular fluid.
Most patients with PVRL will develop central nervous system lymphoma, necessitating evaluation for central nervous system lymphoma even in the absence of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms.
Masquerade syndromes are a heterogeneous group of disorders noteworthy for mimicking immune-mediated entities and thus are difficult to diagnose. They may be divided into neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions. Since the underlying diseases often have harmful consequences, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 9 - Uveitis and Ocular Inflammation. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.