2020–2021 BCSC Basic and Clinical Science Course™
7 Oculofacial Plastic and Orbital Surgery
Part I: Orbit
Chapter 8: The Anophthalmic Socket
In exenteration, some or all of the soft tissues of the orbit are removed, including the globe.
Considerations for Exenteration
Exenteration should be considered in the following circumstances:
Destructive tumors extending into the orbit from the sinuses, face, eyelids, conjunctiva, or intracranial space. However, exenteration is not indicated for all such tumors; some are responsive to radiation, and some have extended too far to be completely removed by surgical excision.
Intraocular melanomas or retinoblastomas that have extended outside the globe (if evidence of distant metastases is excluded). When local control of the tumor would benefit the nursing care of the patient, exenteration is indicated.
Malignant epithelial tumors of the lacrimal gland. Although the procedure is somewhat controversial, these tumors may require extended exenteration with radical bone removal of the roof, lateral wall, and floor.
Fungal infection. Subtotal or total exenteration (discussed in the next section) can be considered for the management of orbital mucormycosis.
Primary orbital malignancies that do not respond to nonsurgical therapy.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.