Detection and Screening
Amblyopia is preventable or reversible with timely detection and intervention. Risk factors for amblyopia include strabismus, anisometropia, isoametropia, and visual deprivation (eg, from ocular media opacities). Regular childhood screening through primary care or community-based programs facilitates early detection of amblyopia and amblyopia risk factors. Screening techniques include direct visual acuity measurement and testing for risk factors. Corneal light reflex tests and cover testing detect strabismus; the Brückner test (see Chapter 7) can reveal media opacities, strabismus, anisometropia, and isoametropia. Instrument-based vision screening is effective in preschool-aged and younger children: portable autorefractors identify refractive errors, while photoscreening devices detect strabismus, refractive errors, and abnormal red reflexes.
Donahue SP, Baker CN; Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, Section on Ophthalmology, American Academy of Pediatrics; American Association of Certified Orthoptists; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; American Academy of Ophthalmology. Procedures for the evaluation of the visual system by pediatricians. Pediatrics. 2016;137(1):e20153597. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-3597.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.