The eye develops from 2 germ layers, the ectoderm and the mesoderm.
Most of the eye forms from different types of ectoderm: surface ectoderm, neuroectoderm, and neural crest cells.
The eye is formed by a series of genetic cascades; alteration of these cascades results in ocular malformations such as microphthalmia and coloboma.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 2 - Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.