The use of computer-assisted 3-dimensional navigation (image guidance) is increasingly common in clinical practice (Fig 2-8). Stereotactic guidance can be useful when performing complex multidisciplinary surgeries in which orbital lesions are accessed through craniotomy and endoscopic skull-base approaches. However, in uncomplicated orbital surgery, while image guidance may have some utility for surgical training, it has a lesser role in procedures performed by experienced orbital surgeons.
Figure 2-8 Computer-assisted 3-dimensional navigation (image guidance).
(Courtesy of M. Reza Vagefi, MD.)
Ali MJ, Naik MN, Kaliki S, Dave TV. Interactive navigation-guided ophthalmic plastic surgery: the usefulness of computed tomography angiographic image guidance. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;32(5):393–398.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.