2020–2021 BCSC Basic and Clinical Science Course™
Chapter 1: Introduction to Glaucoma: Terminology, Epidemiology, and Genetics
Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma
The prevalence of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) varies among racial and ethnic groups. A meta-analysis estimated the prevalence in Asia to be 1.1% among individuals aged 40–80 years; however, it is even higher in east Asia. Among people of European ancestry >40 years, the prevalence is estimated to between 0.1% and 0.4%. The estimated prevalence in African populations ranges from 0.1% to 0.6%. The highest-known prevalence, estimated to be between 2.5% and 4.8%, is found in Inuit populations >40 years in Alaska and Greenland.
Estimates of the prevalence of PACG vary among different Asian populations. Among those ≥50 years in Guangzhou, China, the prevalence of PACG was 1.5%; and the proportion of these subjects with unilateral blindness was 43% compared with 17% for those with POAG in the same population-based survey. In the Tajimi Study, the prevalence of PACG was 0.6%.
Age, race, and ethnicity are risk factors for PACG. The prevalence of PACG may vary by sex, with a significantly higher prevalence observed in women in most studies. Hyperopia and a family history of angle closure are also important risk factors. Other anatomic risk factors are discussed in Chapter 9.
American Academy of Ophthalmology Glaucoma Panel. Preferred Practice Pattern® Guidelines. Primary Angle Closure. American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2015. www.aao.org/ppp
Cho HK, Kee C. Population-based glaucoma prevalence studies in Asians. Surv Ophthalmol. 2014;59(4):434–447.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.