Rift Valley Fever
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a febrile illness caused by the Bunyaviridae family. One of 3 clinical syndromes may develop: (1) an uncomplicated, febrile, influenza-like illness; (2) hemorrhagic fever; or (3) encephalitis. Ophthalmic findings may include anterior uveitis, vitritis, a macular or paramacular retinitis (Fig 11-16), retinal hemorrhage, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve edema. Anterior uveitis may occur in 31% of patients. Patients may develop macular scarring, vascular attenuation, retinal ischemia, and/or optic atrophy.
The differential diagnosis includes viral entities such as measles, rubella, influenza, dengue fever, and WNV infection as well as bacterial illnesses such as brucellosis, Lyme disease, toxoplasmosis, cat-scratch disease, and rickettsial diseases. The diagnosis of RVF is made clinically and serologically.
Al-Hazmi A, Al-Rajhi AA, Abboud EB, et al. Ocular complications of Rift Valley fever outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Ophthalmology. 2005;112(2):313–318.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 9 - Uveitis and Ocular Inflammation. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.