A cell may undergo 2 types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis gives rise to the multiple generations of genetically identical cells needed for the growth and maintenance of the organism. When mitosis is about to begin, the cell accurately duplicates all of its chromosomes. The replicated chromosomes then separate into 2 identical groups that migrate apart and eventually reach opposite sides of the cell. The cell and its contents then divide, forming 2 genetically identical daughter cells, each with the same diploid chromosome number and genetic information as the parent cell.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 2 - Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.