Thyroid Eye Disease
Thyroid eye disease (TED), also known as thyroid-associated orbitopathy and Graves ophthalmopathy, is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder. Although the underlying cause remains unknown, the clinical signs are characteristic and may include a combination of eyelid retraction, eyelid lag, proptosis, restrictive extraocular myopathy, and optic neuropathy. Refer to Chapter 4 in this volume as well as BCSC Section 7, Oculofacial Plastic and Orbital Surgery, for further discussion of TED.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 5 - Neuro-Ophthalmology. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.