2020–2021 BCSC Basic and Clinical Science Course™
7 Oculofacial Plastic and Orbital Surgery
Part I: Orbit
Chapter 6: Orbital Trauma
Orbital Apex Fractures
Orbital apex fractures usually occur in association with other fractures of the face, orbit, or skull and may involve the optic canal, superior orbital fissure, and structures that pass through them. Possible associated complications include traumatic optic neuropathy; cerebrospinal fluid leak; and carotid-cavernous fistula. Orbital computed tomography (CT) may demonstrate evidence of direct optic nerve injury with a fracture at or adjacent to the optic canal.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 10 - Glaucoma. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.