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    Uveitis

    This prospective study describes the etiology of people with uveitis who are living South Africa.

    Study design

    This is a cross-sectional study of patients with uveitis at a single tertiary care center in South Africa, which has the highest incidence of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) in the world. Diagnoses were made using international criteria and a descriptive statistical analysis was performed.

    Outcomes

    Infectious uveitis was diagnosed in 66% of patients. Of the HIV-positive cases, most (80%) had infectious uveitis. By contrast, only 58% of patients without HIV had infectious uveitis. Intraocular TB was the most common source of infectious uveitis, followed by herpes.

    Limitations

    The study population may be more representative of populations within Africa, and less representative of populations in other parts of the world.

    Clinical significance

    A better understanding of uveitis epidemiology could help speed the diagnosis of patients from areas with a high prevalence of infection. Larger, prospective studies of this kind could inform strategies for diagnosis and management.