2020–2021 BCSC Basic and Clinical Science Course™
9 Uveitis and Ocular Inflammation
Chapter 1: Basic Concepts in Immunology: Effector Cells and the Innate Immune Response
Triggers of Innate Immunity
Reactive Nitrogen Products
Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive chemical species. Like reactive oxygen intermediates, NO is involved in various important biochemical functions in microorganisms and host cells. The formation of NO depends on the enzyme nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), which is in the cytosol and dependent on NADPH (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). Several types of NOS are known, including various forms of constitutive NOS and inducible NOS (iNOS). Activation induces enhanced production of NO in certain cells, especially macrophages, via the calcium-independent, induced synthesis of iNOS. Many innate and adaptive stimuli modulate induction of iNOS, especially cytokines and bacterial toxins.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 9 - Uveitis and Ocular Inflammation. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.