2020–2021 BCSC Basic and Clinical Science Course™
2 Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology
Part V: Ocular Pharmacology
Chapter 15: Pharmacologic Principles
Topical medications that are absorbed by the nasal mucosa can attain significant levels in the blood. Systemic effects can be reduced by having patients gently close their eyes or apply digital nasolacrimal compression for 5 minutes after instilling an eyedrop.
When intraocular drugs are to be used, preserved medication must be avoided and the drug’s concentration carefully controlled so that internal ocular structures are protected from toxicity; for preparation and injection of intraocular medication, strict adherence to standard aseptic technique is necessary so that infection can be prevented.
Lipophilic compounds are more likely than hydrophilic compounds to penetrate the blood–ocular and blood–brain barriers.
Sustained-release drug delivery using nonbiodegradable inserts and biodegradable implants are under evaluation for the treatment of glaucoma.
Genetic polymorphisms can alter the way that patients respond to drug therapies. These variations are under evaluation in patients with age-related macular degeneration and in those with glaucoma.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 2 - Fundamentals and Principles of Ophthalmology. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.