• Illustration by Cyndie C. H. Wooley
    File Size: 84 KB
    Refractive Mgmt/Intervention

    Coupling effect of astigmatic incisions. A, A limbal relaxing incision has a coupling ratio of 1.0, and the spherical equivalent and average corneal power are not changed. B, A transverse incision has a coupling ratio greater than 1.0, which causes a hyperopic change in refraction by making the average corneal power flatter.