• Simmons ST, Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 10: Glaucoma, San Francisco, California: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2005.
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    Defects in the nerve fiber layer are among the earliest signs of glaucoma damage and may precede detectable changes in the nerve. Damage may be diffuse or focal, resulting in a groove or wedge defect, as seen here, or may be diffuse. The nerve fiber layer can be visualized in photographs or by ophthalmoscopy.