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    Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit

    Common causes of intracranial hypertension include brain tumor, meningitis, venous sinus thrombosis, hydrocephalus and the entity pseudotumor cerebri, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Pseudotumor cerebri may be associated with vitamin A or vitamin D intoxication, tetracycline therapy, and steroid withdrawal. Pseudotumor cerebri has a propensity to occur in young, obese women, and in most cases a precipitating factor is not found. Disc edema can also be caused by conditions that are not associated with increased intracranial hypertension, such as sarcoidosis, syphilis, tumor, and pseudo-disc edema from causes such as optic nerve head drusen (shown).