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    Retina/Vitreous

    In preproliferative diabetic retinopathy (PPDR), more ominous ischemic lesions occur. These include irregular dilations of retinal veins, called venous beading (shown on the slide by the arrows), intraretinal microvascular abnormalities or capillary shunt vessels (shown on the slide by the arrowheads), and extensive retinal hemorrhages. Once these signs have appeared, approximately 50% of patients will develop proliferative retinopathy within 1 year. It may be beneficial, particularly for patients with type 2 diabetes, to begin panretinal laser therapy at this stage of disease to prevent long-term visual loss.