• Parts E, F courtesy of Anthony C. Arnold, MD
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    Patterns of visual field loss in optic neuropathies. A, Cecocentral scotoma (left; arrow); paracentral scotoma (right; arrow). B, Central scotoma (arrow). C, Arcuate scotoma (arrow). D, Broad arcuate (altitudinal) defect (arrow). E, Nasal arcuate (step) defects (arrows). F, Enlarged blind spot (arrow).