Due to poor air quality related to fires in California, the Academy’s San Francisco offices will be closed Friday, Nov. 16. Member support staff will not be available by phone and responses to emails may be delayed.

  • Parts E, F courtesy of Anthony C. Arnold, MD
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    Patterns of visual field loss in optic neuropathies. A, Cecocentral scotoma (left; arrow); paracentral scotoma (right; arrow). B, Central scotoma (arrow). C, Arcuate scotoma (arrow). D, Broad arcuate (altitudinal) defect (arrow). E, Nasal arcuate (step) defects (arrows). F, Enlarged blind spot (arrow).