• Reproduced with permission from Haldi BA, Mets MB. Nonsurgical treatment of strabismus. Focal Points: Clinical Modules for Ophthalmologists. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 1997, module 4. Photograph courtesy of Betty Anne Haldi, CO.
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    Pediatric Ophth/Strabismus

    Small toys and pictures and reduced letter and E charts are used as near fixation targets.