Study shows springtime is peak for pollen, cases of corneal dryness and irritation
SAN FRANCISCO – New ophthalmology research from the University of Miami shows that dry eye – the little understood culprit behind red, watery, gritty feeling eyes – strikes most often in spring, just as airborne allergens are surging. The study marks the first time that researchers have discovered a direct correlation between seasonal allergens and dry eye, with both pollen and dry eye cases reaching a yearly peak in the month of April. The paper was published online today in Ophthalmology, the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.
Dry eye can significantly impact a person’s quality of life by inducing burning, irritation and blurred vision. The common condition affects about 1 in 5 women and 1 in 10 men, and costs the U.S. health care system nearly $4 billion a year.[i],[ii] Though allergens may exacerbate dry eye in those who already have the condition and produce similar symptoms, allergies and dry eye have historically been viewed as separate conditions. The latest discovery that the two conditions are linked suggests dry eye sufferers may benefit from allergy prevention in addition to dry eye treatments like artificial tears. For instance, wearing goggles outside for yard work and using air filters indoors may stave off springtime dry eye, the researchers say.
They discovered the correlation between allergies and dry eye by reviewing 3.4 million visits to Veterans Affairs eye clinics nationwide over a five-year period between 2006 and 2011. During that time, doctors diagnosed nearly 607,000 patients with dry eye. Researchers also charted the monthly prevalence of dry eye compared to an allergy index over time and found seasonal correlations:
- A seasonal spike occurred each spring, when 18.5 percent of patients were diagnosed with dry eye. Another spike came in winter.
- Prevalence of dry eye was lowest in summer at 15.3 percent.
- April had the highest monthly prevalence of dry eye cases: 20.9 percent of patients seen were diagnosed with dry eye that month. This coincided with the yearly peak in allergens (including pollen), as measured by the allergy index recorded on pollen.com.
The research team hypothesizes that the winter rise in cases of dry eye may be due to low indoor humidity caused by people using heaters indoors without a humidifier to offset the dryness.
“For the first time, we’ve found what appears to be a connection between spring allergens like pollen and dry eye, but also saw that cases rose in winter,” said lead researcher Anat Galor, M.D., MSPH, associate professor of clinical ophthalmology at Bascom Palmer Eye Institute at the University of Miami. “Finding this correlation between dry eye and different seasons is one step toward helping physicians and patients treat the symptoms of dry eye even more effectively based on the time of year.”
For more information on dry eye, visit the American Academy of Ophthalmology’s public information website at EyeSmart.
Notable studies appearing in the May 2015 print issue of Ophthalmology include:
- Peripheral Diabetic Retinopathy Lesions Convey Added Risk of Progression
Paolo Silva et al investigated whether peripheral diabetic retinopathy lesions that can be identified on ultrawide field imaging are associated with an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy progression. They found that this was the case – and that the association was independent of baseline diabetic retinopathy severity and hemoglobin A1c readings.
- Levodopa Ineffective for Residual Amblyopia
The Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group assessed the safety and efficacy of oral levodopa when used as an adjunctive treatment to patching for residual amblyopia. The researchers found that it did not produce a clinically or statistically meaningful improvement in visual acuity compared with placebo and patching.
About the American Academy of Ophthalmology
The American Academy of Ophthalmology, headquartered in San Francisco, is the world's largest association of eye physicians and surgeons, serving more than 32,000 members worldwide. The Academy's mission is to advance the lifelong learning and professional interests of ophthalmologists to ensure that the public can obtain the best possible eye care. For more information, visit www.aao.org.
The Academy is also a leading provider of eye care information to the public. The Academy's EyeSmart® program educates the public about the importance of eye health and empowers them to preserve healthy vision. EyeSmart provides the most trusted and medically accurate information about eye diseases, conditions and injuries. OjosSanos™ is the Spanish-language version of the program. Visit EyeSmart or OjosSanos to learn more.
Ophthalmology, the official journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, publishes original, peer-reviewed, clinically-applicable research. Topics include the results of clinical trials, new diagnostic and surgical techniques, treatment methods, technology assessments, translational science reviews and editorials. For more information, visit www.aaojournal.org.