• Sub-Saharan Africa


    Global Information

    • Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) primarily affects pigmented individuals, especially Asians and African-Americans; however, it is now also recognized in the white population.
    • Typically presents in 6th to 7th decade of life, though may present earlier than other forms of macular degeneration
    • Whites are affected to a lesser extent and with different clinical features
    • Table 1 highlights the observed differences in PCV characteristics across ethnicities.

    Table 1: Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Demographics and Characteristics


    Mean Age

    % Male

    % Bilateral

    % Peripapillary Involving











    Regional Information (Africa)

    • In a 5-year review among patients attending the Retina Clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria
      • 10 cases of PCV
      • Mean age: 58 years
      • 25% Male



    • Shared risk factors with AMD-CNV
      1. Age, male gender, smoking, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and hyperlipidemia
      2. Female gender was found to be a protective factor
      3. Large study in Korea: Age, body mass index (BMI), and higher education to be more strongly associated with PCV than AMD-CNV
    • Ocular risk factors
      1. A history of CSC
    • Systemic biomarkers
      1. C-reactive protein (CRP)
      2. Homocysteine
      3. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)
    • Aqueous/vitreous biomarkers
      1. a. Interleukin-1b (IL-1b)
      2. VEGF
      3. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF)


    PCV is a neovascular and hemorrhagic disorder of the choroid.


    • Degeneration of the walls of arterioles, capillaries, and large, dilated venules
    • Large vascular channels and “polypoid” formations (Figure 9)
    • Thickened capillary basement membranes
    • Hyalinization of choroidal vessels
    • Exudation of fibrin and plasma

    Genetic Factors

    • Gene HTRA1 is associated with PCV as well as neovascular AMD
    • Complement factor H (CFH) variants rs3753394 and rs 800292 are associated with PCV
    • CRP levels are higher in PCV patients and in AMD patients than in control patients
    • I62V variant of CFH is associated with PCV in Japanese patients
    • ARMS2 gene for mitochondrial photoreceptor protein is associated with PCV in Japanese patients
    • CETP genetic variants to be associated with a high risk of PCV and is concordant with reports of elevated HDL as a risk factor for AMD, suggesting possible involvement of the high-density lipoprotein pathway
    • Recent meta-analysis (2015)
      • Complement cascade (CFH Y402H SNP rs1061170, CFH I62V SNP rs800292, C2 SNP rs547154, CFB SNP rs4151657, RDBP SNP rs3880457, and SKIV2L SNPs rs2075702 and rs429608)
      • Inflammatory pathway (TNFRSF10A-LOC389641SNP rs13278062 and BEST-C4orf14-POLR2B-IGFBP7 SNP rs1713985)
      • Extracellular matrix/basement membrane regulation pathway (ARMS2 A69S SNP rs10490924 and HTRA1 promoter SNP rs11200638) and lipid metabolism pathway (CETP SNP rs3764261)
      • Previously associated with PCV (ARMS2, HTRA1, C2, CFB, ELN, LIPC, LPL, ABCA1, VEGF-A, TLR3, LOXL1, SERPING1, and PEDF) were not significantly associated with PCV in this meta-analysis
    • Genotype associated with retreatment response
      • ARMS2 LOC387715 rs10490924 variant: larger lesion size, higher likelihood of vitreous hemorrhage, and worse visual outcome after PDT or combination therapy
      • ARMS2 A69S risk genotype :higher risk for second eye involvement
      • CFH I62V polymorphism: associated with choroidal thickness
      • ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924), HTRA1-rs11200638, PEDF gene polymorphism (SERPINF1 rs12603825): poor outcome after PDT

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an uncertain role in the pathophysiology of PCV.

    • VEGF has been localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in patients with PCV
    • Aqueous levels of VEGF were higher in PCV eyes compared to controls, but were significantly lower than aqueous VEGF levels in CNV-AMD
    • VEGF has not been seen in the vascular endothelium on immunostaining of surgical specimens
    • Anti-VEGF treatment has been well-reported to be effective in treating fluid associated with PCV; however, it has shown inconsistent results in resolving the polypoid vascular lesions
    • While VEGF related angiogenesis processes were important in PCV pathogenesis, different angiogenesis pathways and cascades may be implicated as well

    Natural Course

    1. Depends on factors including location (peripapillary vs macular), size of the lesion, and associated bleeding and exudation
    2. Polypoidal structures may also involute spontaneously
    3. Recurrent serosanguinous detachments of the RPE or neurosensory retina
    4. Microtears of RPE
    5. RPE atrophy
    6. Favorable course was seen in half of all patients with PCV while the other half had recurrences and eventual visual loss.
    7. 11% cumulative incidence of second-eye involvement in PCV in five years


    • The Japanese Study Group of PCV
      • Definite PCV: protruded orange-red elevated lesions on fundus examination and/or characteristic polypoidal lesions on ICGA
      • Probable PCV: only an abnormal vascular network or occurrence of recurrent hemorrhagic and/or serous detachment of RPE were observed
    • EVEREST study
      • Subretinal focal ICGA hyperfluorescence with presence of at least one of the following
        • Branching vascular networks (BVNs)
        • Pulsatile polyp
        • Nodular appearance on stereoscopic viewing
        • Hypofluorescent halo
        • Orange subretinal nodule on fundus photo
        • Presence of massive submacular hemorrhage


    Clinical Characteristics

    • Serosanguinous detachments of the RPE and neurosensory retina
    • PCV lesions and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) (→The hallmark of PCV is the polypoidal lesion, which may be visible as an orange-red nodule on fundus examination)
    • Typically peripapillary or central macula location
    • Relatively preserved retinal architecture
    • Better-than-expected visual acuity
    • Pigment epithelial detachment associated with polypoid lesions
    • Chronic lipid deposition
    • Occasional spontaneous resolution with residual pigment mottling
    • 2 types of PCV
      • Exudative, characterized by serous PED and retinal detachment
      • Hemorrhage, characterized by hemorrhagic PED and subretinal hemorrhage at the macula

    Clinical characteristics may differ in white patients;

    • Lesions are primarily peripapillary
    • Drusen may also be seen in white patients


    Fluorescein angiogram (FA) (Figure 10)

    • Branching vascular networks are often located in Bruch’s membrane (occult CNV)
    • Polypoidal lesions can at times be difficult to see on FA. Lesions may manifest as either classic or occult leakage patterns
    • Atrophy of RPE

    Indocyanine green angiography (ICG) (Figure 11)

    • Gold standard for diagnosis of PCV
    • Choroidal vessel hyperpermeability
    • Pulsatile polypoidal vessels
    • Choroidal vascular networks

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Figure 12)

    • Sub-RPE polypoidal lesions
    • Pigment epithelial detachments
    • Notch in the margin of large PED indicates the site of polypoidal lesions
    • “Double layer sign”: two hyper-reflective lines represent separation of the RPE from Bruch’s membrane
    • Higher rates of choroidal thickening

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF)

    • Central hypo-autofluorescence with a circumferential hyper-autofluorescent ring corresponding to polypoidal lesions
    • Granular hyperautofluorescence, corresponding to the branching choroidal vascular network
    • Useful, non-invasive adjunct to ICGA and OCT for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment

    OCT angiography

    • The combination of en face and cross-sectional OCT angiographic images provides anatomical information about polypoidal structures
    • More detailed view of type 1 CNV or branching vascular network complicated with PCV than ICGA
    • Detection rate of polypoidal structures is lower than ICGA
    • Only 50% of polyps were detected by OCT angiography from recent study performed in Korea

    MANAGEMENT (Africa)

    • Observation for extrafoveal lesions.
    • Thermal laser for extrafoveal lesions threatening the fovea.
    • PDT is not available here, and patients are often referred abroad for this treatment
    • Vitrectomy for breakthrough vitreous hemorrhage


    Figure 1. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 2. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 3. Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 4.  Pathologic myopia ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 5. Melanocytoma ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 6. Choroidal tumors (hemangioma, melanoma, etc) ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 7. Tilted disc syndrome ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 8. Choroidal osteoma ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 9. Large vascular channels and “polypoid” formations ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 10. Fluorescein angiogram (FA) ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 11. Indocyanine green angiography (ICG) ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    Figure 12. Optical  coherence tomography (OCT) ©American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2014.

    CASE IMAGES: Africa

    Figure 1 Case Images Africa.
    IPCV with chronic subretinal exudation in a 68-year-old Nigerian man.


    Figure 2 Case Images Africa
    .  Fundus findings in a 56-year-old Nigerian woman with IPCV. Right eye with resolved subretinal blood and macular degeneration. The left eye shows fresh subretinal hemorrhage (long arrow); subretinal lesions (medium arrow); RPE detachment (short arrow). Note the absence of drusen seen in age-related macular degeneration.

    Figure 3 Case Images Africa. 53-year-old Nigerian woman with IPCV.  Polypoidal, orange subretinal lesion (long arrow) and sub retinal exudates (short arrow)


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    Executive Editor:
    R. V. Paul Chan, MD, FACS, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York

    Section Editor:
    Sub-Saharan Africa:
    Dupe Ademola-Popoola, MBBS, FMCOphth, FWACS, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ilorin

    Associate Editors:
    Jeff Pettey, MD, University of Utah Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John Moran Eye Center's Residency Program Director
    Grace Sun, MD, Weill Cornell Eye - Lower Manhattan, Weill Cornell Medical College Residency Program Director

    Assistant Editors:
    Samir Patel, BS, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York
    Peter Coombs, MD, Weill Cornell Medical College; New York, New York

    Regional Contributors:
    Sub-Saharan Africa:
    Dr. Oluleye Tunji S., University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

    American Academy of Ophthalmology
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