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    AAO 2015
    Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit

    • Temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis, GCA) should be considered in the differential diagnosis when an elderly patient presents with new-onset headache.
    • Recognition of less common, nonocular signs of ischemia, such as cough, trismus, and jaw claudication, is crucial to early diagnosis and timely treatment.
    • Occult GCA should be suspected in patients older than 50 years with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and the above symptoms, even in the absence of abnormal inflammatory markers such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP).