• Cornea/External Disease, Ocular Pathology/Oncology

    Analysis of non-invasive tear collection from patients diagnosed with primary ocular adnexal, extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma showed increased levels of some cytokines and decreased levels in others.

    Study design

    This is a prospective case control study of tear samples obtained from treatment-naïve patients, clinically diagnosed with primary ocular adnexal, extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (OA-EMZL) at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre.

    Outcomes

    In patients with OA-EMZL, and compared to healthy controls, some tear cytokines were increased (IL-1RA, IL-8) and some were decreased (FGF-2, IL-2, IL-4). Lacrimal gland lymphoma invasion was related to levels of IL-8.

    Limitations

    This study had a small sample size. Only patients with low-grade EMZL subtype were included in the analysis. Genetic analysis was not performed on the tumors so correlation comments regarding common genetic translocations and cytokine levels cannot be made. Cytokine analysis was performed with a multiplex bead array assay.

    Clinical significance

    The use of small-volume non-invasive tear collection has the potential to reveal biosignatures that can suggest diagnosis, pathogenesis, and mechanisms of ocular disease.