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    Types of Strabismus

    By John D. Ferris, FRCOphth
    Squint Clinic
    Pediatric Ophth/Strabismus, Strabismus

    Strabismus refers to a misalignment of the eyes. There are many different types of strabismus, but broadly speaking they can be divided into the following groups:

    • Esotropias: An esotropia is a convergent strabismus where one eye turns in towards the nose.
    • Exotropias: An exotropia is a divergent strabismus where the one eye turns outwards.
    • Hypertropias and hypotropias: These terms refer to vertical strabismus where one eye is higher (hypertropia) or lower (hypotropia) than the fellow eye.
    • Paralytic strabismus: Damage to the third, fourth or sixth cranial nerves as result of poor blood supply, pressure on the nerve or head injuries will cause limited eye movements and a strabismus.

    There are a number of different types of strabismus in each of these groups that carry their own individual characteristics and treatments.

    Republished, with permission, from