2020–2021 BCSC Basic and Clinical Science Course™
1 Update on General Medicine
Chapter 14: Infectious Diseases
Vancomycin-resistant strains of enterococci and staphylococci are a significant cause of life-threatening infection in hospitalized patients.
DNA probes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provide more sensitive diagnostic tools for detecting gonorrhea, syphilis, and Lyme disease, as well as chlamydial, mycobacterial, fungal, and many viral infections.
Treatment of patients in the early stages of HIV infections has improved. All individuals between the ages of 15 and 65 years should be screened for HIV.
The treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis consists of intravitreal ganciclovir or foscarnet and oral valganciclovir.
Newer antibiotics such as ansamycin, ceftaroline, ceftobiprole, daptomycin, delafloxacin, evernimicin, linezolid, teicoplanin, telithromycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin provide expanded antimicrobial coverage over previous antibiotics and offer treatment options for multidrug-resistant infections. Teixobactin appears to represent an entirely new class of antibiotic.
Zika virus and Ebola virus have emerged recently as causes of significant ocular disease.
Excerpted from BCSC 2020-2021 series: Section 1 - Update on General Medicine. For more information and to purchase the entire series, please visit https://www.aao.org/bcsc.