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  • Pediatric Ophth/Strabismus

    Review of: Evaluation of retinal structure in pediatric subjects with vitamin D deficiency

    Aydemir E, Ilhan C, Aydemir G, et al. American Journal of Ophthalmology, January 2022

    This prospective, cross-sectional cohort study conducted at a single institution in Turkey evaluated the effect of vitamin D deficiency on retinal structural parameters in children.

    Study design

    Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with a vitamin D deficiency (n = 70) and those without a deficiency (n = 80). Several retinal structure parameters were evaluated and compared between each patient group, including central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE), choroidal thickness, and retinal nerve fiber layer.


    In patients with vitamin D deficiency, choroidal thinning, a decrease in CRAE, and an increase in CRVE were reported. For the other retinal structure parameters, no statistical difference was noted between the 2 patient groups.


    Limitations include a homogenous ethnic patient population, no reporting of the duration of the patients’ vitamin D deficiency, and no subgroup analyses regarding either vitamin D deficiency levels or microvascular damage outcomes (i.e., choroidal thinning vs. CRAE decrease vs. CRVE increase).

    Clinical significance

    Although the investigators reported retinal microvascular pathogenesis in pediatric patients with vitamin D deficiency, many children with vitamin D deficiency will likely have more complex systemic disease. In addition, the implications of this study's findings regarding retinal maturation during childhood and Vitamin D deficiency are important, but the direct application to clinical practice is limited at this time.