By the American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Pattern Committee: Roy S. Chuck, MD, PhD,1 Steven P. Dunn, MD,2 Christina J. Flaxel, MD,3 Steven J. Gedde, MD,4 Francis S. Mah, MD,5 Kevin M. Miller, MD,6 David K. Wallace, MD, MPH,7 David C. Musch, PhD, MPH8
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1Montefiore Medical Center & Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York
2Department of Ophthalmology, William Beaumont Hospital, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Royal Oak, Michigan
3Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon
4Bascom Palmer Eye Institue, Miami, Florida
5Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, California
6Stein Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California
7Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana
8Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, and Epidemiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Highlighted Findings and Recommendations for Care
The recommended frequency for adult comprehensive medical eye examinations for asymptomatic patients, and for patients who do not have risk factors for eye disease, is as follows: under 40 years--every 5 to 10 years; 40 to 54 years--every 2 to 4 years; 55 to 64 years--every 1 to 3 years; and 65 years or older--every 1 to 2 years.
An increased frequency of comprehensive medical eye examinations is recommended for adults who have risk factors for glaucoma, such as African Americans and Hispanics.
The first recommended adult comprehensive medical eye examination, and subsequent frequency of examination for patients who have diabetes mellitus, depends on the type of diabetes and pregnancy status. The recommendations are as follows: (1) type 1 diabetes mellitus--first examination 5 years after onset and yearly thereafter; (2) type 2 diabetes mellitus--first examination at the time of diagnosis and yearly thereafter; and (3) for women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes--first examination prior to conception and then early in the first trimester of pregnancy. Interval recommendations thereafter will be based on findings at first examination. (Note: Women who develop gestational diabetes do not require an eye examination during pregnancy, and they do not appear to be at increased risk for developing diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy.)
Smoking is a risk factor for many ocular diseases.