Skip to main content
  • AAO PPP Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Panel, Hoskins Center for Quality Eye Care
    Pediatric Ophth/Strabismus
    By the American Academy of Ophthalmology Preferred Practice Pattern Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Panel: Oscar A. Cruz, MD,1 Michael X. Repka, MD, MBA, Consultant,2 Amra Hercinovic, MPH, Methodologist,3 Susan A. Cotter, OD, MS, Consultant,4 Scott R. Lambert, MD,5 Amy K. Hutchinson, MD,6 Derek T. Sprunger, MD, MPH,7 Christie L. Morse, MD,8 David K. Wallace, MD, MPH, Chair

    As of November 2015, the PPPs are initially published online-only in the Ophthalmology journal and may be freely downloaded in their entirety by all visitors. Open the PDF for this entire PPP or click here to access the PPP on the journal's siteClick here to access the journal's PPP collection page.

    1Anwar Shah Endowed Chair and Professor, Department of Ophthalmology and Department of Pediatrics, Saint Louis University Medical Center, Saint Louis, Missouri
    2David L. Guyton, MD and Fednuniak Family Professor of Ophthalmology, Professor of Pediatrics, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    3Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, Florida
    4Southern California College of Optometry, Marshall B. Ketchum University, Fullerton, California
    5Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California
    6Professor of Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia
    7Indiana University Health Physicians, Midwest Eye Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana
    8Concord Eye Center, Concord, New Hampshire
    9Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana

    Highlighted Findings and Recommendations for Care

    Treatment of refractive error alone can improve visual acuity (VA) in children who have anisometropic, strabismic, or combined amblyopia. Visual acuity of children who have bilateral refractive amblyopia also can substantially improve with refractive correction alone.

    Most children who have moderate amblyopia (20/40 to 20/80) respond to initial treatment consisting of 2 hours of daily patching or weekend atropine.

    Following treatment of amblyopia caused by strabismus, anisometropia, or both, continued monitoring is necessary and additional treatment, if needed, is associated with long-term durability of the VA improvement.

    Suitable treatment options for amblyopia include optical correction, patching, pharmacological treatment, optical treatment, Bangerter (translucent) filters, and digital therapeutics, in addition to managing the underlying cause of amblyopia.

    Amblyopia treatment may be effective in older children and adolescents, particularly if they have not previously been treated.

    Literature Search

    Amblyopia PPP - 2022 - Literature Search