• Create Activities

    Create educational activities for ethical dilemmas in global ophthalmology using these presentations, case studies, and pre and post-test questions.


    After completing this educational activity in Global Ophthalmology, you should be able to:

    • Identify and know how to address potential ethical issues when participating in Global Ophthalmology activities.
    • Describe the ethical issues involved in volunteering and working, as well as training young ophthalmologists, to provide ophthalmic care abroad.

    Pre and Post-Test Questions

    1. Which of the following is an example of a potentially problematic arrangement between an ophthalmologist and the host country sponsoring the program?
    a. The ophthalmologist and the host country arrange a program that is mutually beneficial.
    b. The host program does not provide supervision for the visiting trainees that will be operating on patients.
    c. There is a protocol developed by the sponsor and the visiting ophthalmologist on the activities and expectations for trainees.

    2. Which of the following is an example of appropriate behavior when performing clinical care and surgery in another country?
    a. Ensure that preoperative and postoperative care is provided for the patient, and obtain informed consent for the procedure.
    b. Patient is seen preoperatively by the operating ophthalmologist, but no postoperative care is arranged.
    c. Informed consent and preoperative assessment performed exclusively by a local healthcare provider without assessment by the operating ophthalmologist.

    3. Which of the following represents an example of a conflict of interest when performing a global ophthalmology activity?
    a. Bringing surgical instruments that you own in order to perform surgery in a developing country where you have been asked to teach a specific surgical technique to local ophthalmologists.
    b. Assuring that participation in the program is not influenced by a commercial or industry relationship, the potential for increased professional reputation/recognition or surgical acumen, and the potential for publication following the international visit.
    c. Using a new surgical instrument in a developing country in order to test the efficacy of the instrument for a company that will pay you $5000 USD for doing so.

    4. Which of the following is true regarding competency of a physician who wishes to participate in a global ophthalmology activity?
    a. An ophthalmologist may perform an unsupervised procedure outside of their home country even if they have no experience with that procedure.
    b. It is ethical for an ophthalmologist to perform procedures in another country exclusively as a means to hone surgical or medical skills.
    c. An ophthalmologist should perform only those procedures in which he or she is competent by virtue of specific training or experience or is assisted by one who is.

    5. Which of the following is true regarding informed consent in a global ophthalmology activity?
    a. Informed consent is not needed by the operating ophthalmologist if the informed consent document is already signed by the patient or surrogate.
    b. It is important to disclose relevant information in a manner that is appropriate to the customs and culture of the country that you are working in.
    c. Informed consent is not needed if the patient is being compensated as part of a research study.

    6. Which of the following is true regarding research outside of your home country?
    a. Conduct your research in the same manner as if you were in your home native country; this may include the need for IRB approval at home and approval from an IRB or equivalent entity in the country in which the research will take place.
    b. Explain to patients that you will treat their medical condition only if they participate as a subject in the study.
    c. Research outside of your home country does not require IRB approval given that it is not performed in your home country.

    See also: Code of Ethics - Global Ophthalmology